Diabetes mellitus (DM): Metabolic disorder in which the person has high blood glucose (blood sugar).
Type-1 Diabetes (T1DM): The body does not produce insulin. Also known as insulin-dependent diabetes, juvenile diabetes.
Type-2 Diabetes (T2DM): The body does not produce enough insulin for proper function, or the cells in the body do not react to insulin (insulin resistance).
Global Scenario of Type 2 Diabetes mellitus:
- In 2017 International diabetes Federation (IDF) published 8th edition of IDF diabetes atlas.
- IDF estimated that 425 million people have diabetes mellitus globally, aged 20 to 79 years old. (1)
- Type 2 Dibetes Mellitus cases are almost 90% of total diabetes cases. (2,3)
- This estimate project that the cases affected will rise to 629 million by 2045 and most of the population will be from developing countries like India.(1)
Indian scenario of type 2 Diabetes mellitus :
- A National study found that there are 62 million individuals suffering from T2DM and about 77 million integers are in prediabetic condition.(4)
- According to IDF estimates, India will have 151.4 million cases of diabetes mellitus in 2045.
Causes of Diabetes Mellitus:
- There are multiple causes for rising diabetes Mellitus like economic development, age, industrialization, unhealthy eating and work habits, sitting at one place for long period.
- The main cause of T2DM are obesity, unhealthy lifestyle, processed food, genetic makeup and environment, also contribute to rise in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus cases.(5)
Preventive measures of Diabetes Mellitus:
- T2DM can be reduced by exercising for at least 30 minute and maintaining appropriate body weight, having a nutritional food, avoiding smoking and moderate consumption of alcohol. (6,7)
- The risk of complications can be minimized by getting diagnosed and treated.
- To prevent T2DM modifications in diet and lifestyle is important.
- Previous clinical trials have suggested that major healthy changes in Lifestyle can lower the risk incidence of T2DM by 58% compared to normal population. (8)
- Effective Lifestyle based studies suggest that some important changes which can prevent T2DM such as increased physical activity, healthy nutritional diet, and moderate consumption of alcohol that is 1-2 drink per day showed reduce risk of T2DM. (9)